General Science &
Technology for UPSC Prelims

General science and technology is a subject that is equally important as other subjects for the UPSC civil services exam. Every year about 25 – 30 questions are asked from this section in the UPSC prelims of the IAS exams. So, you can assess the importance of this section. Generally, students from science or engineering backgrounds find this section easy, but others with a humanities background find this section a bit tough. It need not be if you follow some strategies. This article talks about how to go about preparing for the general science section of the UPSC civil services prelims.


    • Universe – Big Bang, Redshift, Blueshift
    • Star Formation – Stellar Evolution, Life Cycle of A Star
    • Solar System Formation – Nebular Theory of Laplace
    • Solar System – Planets, Inner Planets, Outer Planets
    • Sun – Internal Structure, Atmosphere
    • Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Reactor Types
    • India’s Three-Stage Nuclear Power Programme
    • Cell Organelles – Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell
    • Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, Polysaccharides
    • Proteins – Amino Acids, Enzymes
    • Fats – Healthy Fats and Unhealthy Fats
    • Animal Tissues – Epithelium, Connective Tissues
    • Human Digestive System – Digestive Glands
    • Respiratory System – NCERT General Science
    • Human Neural System – Human Brain
    • Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    • Muscular and Skeletal System
    • Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA, Recombinant DNA
    • Mitosis – Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Meiosis – Mitosis – Meiosis Comparison
    • Inheritance – Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Chromosomal Theory, Human Genome Project
    • Diseases Caused by Microorganisms
    • Sex Determination – Genetic Disorders
    • Microbes in Human Welfare – Useful Microbes
    • Immunity – Human Immune System
    • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
    • AIDS, Cancer – causes
    • Diseases – Acute, Chronic, Communicable Diseases
    • Blood – Blood Groups – Formed Elements
    • Circulatory System, Double Circulation
    • Excretory System – Kidney, Urine Formation
    • Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
    • Biological Classification
    • Five Kingdom Classifications of Plants and Animals
    • Plant Parts and Their Functions
    • Plant Kingdom – Thallophytes (Algae), Bryophytes, Pteridophytes
    • Plants with Seeds – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
    • Plant Tissue – Meristematic – Simple, Complex Permanent Tissue
    • Plant Nutrition – Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Cycle, Fixation
    • Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Plants
    • Classification of Animal Kingdom (Animalia)
    • Classification of Vertebrata (Phylum Chordata)
    • Human Reproductive System
    • Biotechnology – Genetic Engineering – Processes and Applications
    • Atomic Theory – Structure of an Atom
    • DELP (UJALA) Scheme – Comparison: LED – CFL – Incandescent Bulb

Tips to remember while studying for general science :


  • Go through NCERT text books and revise them thoroughly.
  • Stick to the basics only. Preparing from the NCERTs is enough for the core subjects. No need to study scientific concepts in detail.
  • The idea is to cover the portions as much as possible; you don’t have to get a doctorate in science.
  • Update yourself on the latest scientific developments happening in India and abroad.
  • Know the Nobel Prize winners for the year and their area of work.
  • Follow ISRO, DRDO, Ministry of Science & Technology websites and news.
  • If any concept confuses you or you don’t understand it well enough from the NCERTs, look it up on the Internet.
  • Go through and practice previous year IAS question papers.
  • If there is any event in India related to science, always go through the basic science involved in that area.
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