Indian and World GeographyPhysical, Social & Economic

: June 16, 2018    : Milan

Geography is a vast subject which looks at the spatial connection between people, places, and the earth and it extensively covers all spheres and seeks to understand the world – its social and economic parameters- through an understanding of place and location. Geography subject is a multi-disciplinary in nature as it echoes in physical and regional geography as well as overlaps with other topics like environment, economics, and also important in UPSC current affairs perspective. The nature of Geography questions asked by UPSC in the Civil Services Exam is both basic and application type. Indian and World Geography will help you study in very systematic manner.

Indian Geography

indian-and-world-geography-overview Image source: Google, see: Content Credit

Basic idea about India:

  1. Location, latitude, longitude, time zone
  2. Neighboring countries
  3. States and its position and the states on International boundaries
  4. Important straits

The Himalayas:

  1. Geological Formation
  2. Physiographic divisions
  3. Climate, Vegetation, Soil and Biodiversity
  4. Major passes
  5. Significance
  6. Recent issues

The Great North Indian plains:

  1. Geological Formation
  2. Physiographic divisions
  3. Climate, Vegetation, Soil and Biodiversity
  4. Significance

Peninsular Plateau:

  1. Geological formation
  2. Deccan plateau
  3. Central highlands
  4. Western and Eastern Ghats
  5. Socio-econ

Indian Desert

Coastal plains and Islands

River systems – Characteristics, comparison and significance

  1. Himalayan rivers
  2. Peninsular rivers
  3. River basins
  4. Hydro-Power projects, Power plants and Major Dams
  5. Regional development and planning
  6. West flowing and east flowing rivers
  7. Interlinking of rivers

Climate in India:

  1. Monsoon
  2. Season of India
  3. Cyclones

Mineral and industries:

  1. Distribution of min
  2. Industrial policies
  3. Location and factors
  4. Issues and challenges of the industries
  5. Industrial clutters

Agriculture and Allied-characteristics and Problems:

  1. Land utilization
  2. Types of agriculture practices
  3. Soils and Crops
  4. Trends agriculture (Green revolution )
  5. Irrigation
  6. Major irrigation projects
  7. Land reforms
  8. Government policies and schemes
  9. Animal husbandry (livestock resources)

Natural vegetation and fauna- Characteristics, importance, comparison and significance:

  1. Classification of natural vegetation
  2. Rainfall distribution
  3. Wildlife sanctuaries
  4. National Forest Policy
  5. Biosphere reserve
  6. National parks
  7. Environmental issues
  8. Red-listed species (in recent news)

Economic infrastructure:

  1. Transportation, Road(National Highways)- Rail- Air- Water(Major inland water ways) and its Significance
  2. Power and energy sector
  3. Sources of conventional and non-conventional energy
  4. Energy conservation and crisis
  5. Recent developments

Human Geography:

  1. All the attributes Population
  2. Recent census- 2011

World Geography


  1. Theories related to Solar System
  2. Theories related formation of universe
  3. Recent updates on the same

Basic idea about Earth:

  1. Motion of the Earth – Rotation and Revolution
  2. Latitudes and Longitudes
  3. Inclination of the Earth’s Axis – it’s effect on seasons
  4. Solar Eclipse, Lunar Eclipse and Tides and their significance


  1. Earth’s movement (exo-genetic and endo-genetic)
  2. Earthquakes, volcanic activity
  3. Basic idea about Continental Drift Theory, Plate Tectonics Theory, Sea Floor Spreading
  4. Interior of the earth
  5. lithosphere
  6. Interaction of lithosphere with other spheres
  7. Mass Movements of landforms, erosion and deposits
  8. Basic information about geographical landforms and their significance
  9. Rock system and Classification of Rocks


  1. Structure and composition of atmosphere
  2. Factors controlling temperature distribution
  3. Insolation and terrestrial radiation
  4. Heat budget
  5. Global warming and ozone layer
  6. Humidity and condensation
  7. Classification of clouds
  8. Precipitation mechanism
  9. Different types and forms of precipitation
  10. Pressure belts
  11. Winds: Planetary Winds, Seasonal and local Winds
  12. Cyclones Tropical and Temperate cyclone
  13. Formation of cyclone, characteristics and impact
  14. Jet streams
  15. Various atmospheric phenomenon

The hydrosphere:

  1. Bottom relief of ocean
  2. Salinity and temp variation
  3. Ocean currents
  4. Ocean deposit
  5. Ocean resources
  6. Recent issues and development with ref to oceanography- Eg: UNCLOS


  1. Major Biomes
  2. Flora and fauna
  3. International organization for biodiversitys
  4. Conservation of Biodiversity
  5. Recent issues

Economic geography

Map work

  1. Places in news
Note : Some contents in this website maybe referred from other websites, books and based on personal experience for the purpose of spreading knowledge and to help people finding solutions they are looking for. We do not allow readers to violate any copyright law like to sell or distribute for business purpose. They are allowed to Read, Share and Print the document. However we are giving credit to websites from where some of content is used by us. You can find list of websites in the link : Source Credit

Thinkpedia is a free article publishing platform for science & technology, UPSC, tourism, food & healthcare, study & e-Learning, nature & wildlife, DIY, did You Know and many more categories.

Trending from Bollywood
Trending from Articles
Trending from Technology
Stay Connected
Our Contributors

Ishita Banik
(Best Selling Author)

Anish Passi
(Director at Neostancils)

Mr. AK Mishra
(Founder of Chanakya IAS Academy)

Milan Anshuman
(Travel & Technology)

Carol Jones
(Blogger & Digital Marketing Expert)

Join our community


Share your articles to reach right people & get featured among 100s of authors.

Learn More